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In time the south of the Iberian peninsula became fully integrated into the Roman world.Wheat, olives, and wine from what is now Portugal were exported to Rome.Sebastiao was succeeded by Henrique, who died childlessly.Afterward, King Philip II of Spain claimed the throne of Portugal on the grounds that he was the nephew of King Sebastiao.By Tim Lambert Human beings have lived in Portugal since about 30,000 BC when the world was in the grip of an ice age. In about 5,000 BC farming was introduced to Portugal. In 210 BC the Romans invaded the Iberian Peninsula. They wore leather clothes and they made stone tools. About 700 BC Celtic tribes entered Portugal from the north. Meanwhile by 800 BC, the Phoenicians from what is now Lebanon had begun trading with the Portuguese. By about 600 BC the Greeks were also trading with Portugal.The Spaniards won the battle of Alcantara and Philip II of Spain became Philip I of Portugal. Spain did not recognize Portuguese independence until 1668 when the treaty of Lisbon was signed. In 1600 the Portuguese dominated the spice trade with Asia.From then until 1640 Spain and Portugal shared a monarch. However, in the 17th century, they lost their position to the Dutch. Furthermore, in 1717 the Portuguese won a naval victory over the Turks at Matapan.
Then in the late 14th century Portugal was drawn into a war. At that time Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) made navigation into a fine art.However by the middle of the 3rd century AD the Roman Empire was in decline.In the 5th century Roman rule in Portugal collapsed. They were landowners and warriors who despised trade. In 711 Moors from North Africa invaded the Iberian peninsula.When King Fernando (1367-1383) died his daughter Beatriz became queen. Some Portuguese feared that Portugal would become united with Castile and cease to be independent. The king of Castile invaded Portugal to support his wife. Finally, the Castilians were routed by a Portuguese army (supported by English archers) at the battle of Aljubarrota. he also provided ships and money to Portuguese captains.Dom Joao then became king and Portugal remained independent. Then in the 15th century, Portugal became a great maritime nation. Portuguese mariners ventured further and further afield.
A little Visigothic statelet slowly grew in the north. The Counts of Portugal were vassals of the king of Leon but culturally the area was quite different from Leon.