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The only well-preserved example of Byzantine palace architecture is the shell of a three-story rectangular building of limestone and brick, laid in patterns and stripes.Dating from about 1300, it is called the Palace of Constantine (Tekfur Sarayı) and is attached to the land walls not far from the Golden Horn.It was built into the defenses of Theodosius II, near the junction of the land and sea walls.The marble-clad bases of its two large towers still stand, and three arches decorated with columns stretch between them.The church is built as a domed octagon within a rectangle, with a columned and galleried Byzantine interior.It is also called the Mosque of Küçük Ayasofya (Little Sophia) and can be considered an architectural parent of Justinian’s reconstruction of Hagia Sophia.Large mosques were usually built with ancillary structures.
The most magnificent of these was built by the sultan Ahmed III in 1728, behind the apse of Hagia Sophia.The most imposing of their mosques were constructed from the mid-15th to the mid-16th century, and the greatest of the architects all bore the name of Sinan.They were Atik Sinan (the Elder), Sinan of Balıkesir, and Mimar Koca Sinan (Great Architect Sinan).Irene, was dedicated to “Divine Peace.” Many art historians deem the dome (105 feet [32 metres] in diameter) of Hagia Sophia to be the most beautiful in the world. Irene, is said to have been built by Constantine in 325 on the foundations of a pagan temple.It was enlarged by the emperor Constans and rebuilt after the fire of 415 by the emperor Theodosius II.
Spanning the valley between the third and fourth hills is the two-story limestone aqueduct built in 366 by the emperor Valens.