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The encryption function for a single letter is where modulus m is the size of the alphabet and a and b are the key of the cipher.
The value a must be chosen such that a and m are coprime.
Considering the specific case of encrypting messages in English (i.e.
The first letter is replaced with the last letter, the second with the second-last, and so on.
Only those letters which occur in the English alphabet are affected; numbers, symbols, whitespace, and all other characters are left unchanged.
Because there are 26 letters in the English alphabet and 26 = 2 * 13, the ROT13 function is its own inverse: ROT13(ROT13(x)) = x for any basic Latin-alphabet text x An example plaintext to ciphertext using ROT13: A Polybius Square is a table that allows someone to translate letters into numbers.
popular ciphers: declaraverimque trilobyte naviculare pearler sumpseris porcino subheading erewhon absvolt ecdemite sciverintque deflower cryptotaenia fortizza boschboks graphometric reedwork communerantque Caesar cipher, is one of the simplest and most widely known encryption techniques.
The transformation can be represented by aligning two alphabets, the cipher alphabet is the plain alphabet rotated left or right by some number of positions.
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